Charles X’s Wars Volume 2 – The Wars in the East, 1655-1657

Charles X's Wars Volume 2

Volume 2 will describe the wars in the east, during the period 1655-1657. This book describes and analyses the ‘Swedish Deluge’ (potop szwedski), the devastating 1655–1660 series of wars fought between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Brandenburg-Prussia, Muscovite Russia, Transylvania, Cossack Ukraine, the Tatar Khanate of Crimea, and the Holy Roman Empire during the reign of […]

Charles X’s Wars Volume 1 – Armies of the Swedish Deluge, 1655-1660

Charles X's Wars Volume 1

This three-volume series will describe and analyses the ‘Swedish Deluge’ (potop szwedski), the devastating 1655–1660 series of wars fought between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Brandenburg-Prussia, Muscovite Russia, Transylvania, Cossack Ukraine, the Tatar Khanate of Crimea, and the Holy Roman Empire during the reign of Swedish King Charles X Gustavus, an experienced former general from the […]

The Shogun’s Soldiers Volume 1 – The Daily Life of Samurai and Soldiers in Edo Period Japan, 1603-1721

The Shogun's Soldiers Volume 1

Tokugawa Ieyasu’s decisive victory at Sekigahara in 1600 concluded the civil wars, confirmed his position of military supremacy as shōgun (generalissimo) of Japan, and inaugurated the Edo period (1600–1868), so named because Ieyasu after the battle established his capital in Edo (modern-day Tokyo). By then, Japan was an advanced, outward-looking country. Previously preoccupied by internal […]

FROM 9/11, 2001, TO 8/15, 2021: REGIME CHANGE IN AFGHANISTAN

The 9/11 terrorist attacks shaped American politics for decades. In 2021, the Biden Administration’s timetable for withdrawal of military forces from Afghanistan was for domestic political reasons firmly tied to the 20th anniversary of 9/11. The problem was, nobody thought to remind President Joe Biden that the Taliban government also had a 20th anniversary to […]

Svenskt flyg under kalla kriget

svenskt-flyg-under-kalla-kriget

Under det kalla kriget hade Sverige ett av världens största flygvapen. Det bestod nästan enbart av svenska stridsflygplan. Bara stormakterna gjorde liknande ansträngningar. Satsningenberörde hela samhället. Överallt i landet fanns flygflottiljer, hemliga vägbaser och förråd, liksom den svenska flygindustrin med mer än tusen underleverantörer – om kriget skulle komma. Men hur såg egentligen den svenska […]

Hemligstämplat – svensk underrättelsetjänst från Erlander till Bildt

Hemlig Stämplat

See more – Adlibris Alla de svenska hemligheterna från det kalla kriget. Boken bygger på tidigare hemligstämplade dokument och mycket berättas för första gången. Vad var det egentligen som hände under det kalla kriget och åren därefter? Vad gjorde landets politiska ledning, öppet och i hemlighet? – Hur gick det egentligen till när spionen Stig Wennerström avslöjades, […]

The Lion from the North, The Swedish Army During the Thirty Years War (vol 2)

This book describes and analyses the early modern Swedish army during the Thirty Years War after the death in 1632 of King Gustavus Adolphus. At this time, military operations were handled by field marshals under the overall command of the Swedish Chancellor, Axel Oxenstierna. The book expands our understanding of the Swedish army during the […]

Police Intelligence Collection and National Security Intelligence

Until 1945, police intelligence remained a key source of national intelligence. Of particular importance for counterespionage and counterterrorism, police networks also provided strategic intelligence on countries with which police cooperation took place and, in times of war, facilitated operations on enemy territory. From 1929, for instance, the Cairo Police coordinated a global intelligence network ranging […]

Briefing the Swedish policy maker: the analyst-policy maker relationship in a small country

Policy makers tend to pick and choose among conclusions presented to them. This can result in politicization, which ultimately might result in intelligence being blamed for policy failures. This has a negative impact on intelligence analysis, transforming it in an ever more cautious direction which negates its utility in the policy process. Swedish intelligence learnt […]

Afghanistan Beyond the Fog of War – Persistent Failure of a Rentier State

This is the first book to scrutinize the root causes of problems today with Afghan reconstruction. It begins in 1880 with the coming to power of Emir Abdur Rahman and departure of an occupying British army. On the northern border, Russian forces were also poised. Determined to preserve Afghan independence, Abdur Rahman devised a nation-building […]

Nanomaterials Technology: Convergence between Nanotechnology and Materials Science and Engineering

This chapter will describe the implications for security forces of the convergence between nanotechnology and materials science and engineering. It will aim to investigate what can be expected in the medium term, until 2025, by examining U.S. and Russian efforts in nanomaterials, with a focus on security forces applications. It will also suggest a few […]

Transnational Organized Crime and Jihadist Terrorism

This book describes and analyzes the convergence of transnational organized crime and jihadist terrorism that has taken place within Russian-speaking social networks in Western Europe. Studies have shown that while under certain circumstances links between criminal organizations and terrorist groups appear, these are usually opportunistic and temporary in nature. Only rarely do they develop into […]

Hybrid Threats, the Gerasimov Doctrine, Nonlinear Warfare – or Indirect and Asymmetric Operations?

Rightly or wrongly, many observers who discuss present national security threats emanating from Russia will refer to the so-called Gerasimov Doctrine as essential reading. The Gerasimov Doctrine, as it is explained in most media reports, purports to be a new Russian military doctrine that combines military, technological, information, diplomatic, economic, cultural, and other tactics, which […]

The Threat to Energy Infrastructure in the Central Eurasia from Terrorist Groups Affiliated to ISIL

In 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) announced the establishment of its Khorasan Province, said to encompass “Afghanistan, Pakistan, and other nearby lands.” Soon after, ISIL proclaimed its Caucasus Province. However, the war in Syria and Iraq is going badly for ISIL. Losing ground in its heartland, ISIL fighters will have […]

Doku Umarov, Founder of the Caucasus Emirate: From Secularism to Jihadism

Doku Umarov (1964-2013), also known as Dokka Umarov and later Abu Usman, was the founder and leader of the Caucasus Emirate. An ethnic Chechen, he, like many North Caucasian jihadis, experienced an ideological slide from secularism and separatism to jihadism. Umarov personally described how he took up jihad, with the help of a relative, from […]

Understanding Lone Actor Terrorism

This volume examines the lone actor terrorist phenomenon, including the larger societal trends which may or may not have led to their acts of terrorism. With lone actor terrorism becoming an increasingly common threat, the contributors to this volume aim to answer the following questions: What drives the actions of individuals who become lone actor […]

The Hybrid Threat Capability of the Afghan Taliban Movement, 2001- 2014

When the Afghan Taliban leaders withdrew into Pakistan in late 2001, they had no intention of surrendering the struggle against the U.S.-led international coalition which had forced them out of Afghanistan. Yet, with a substantial international military presence firmly entrenched in Afghanistan, there was no way that the Taliban could regain power by conventional military […]

Power Projection by Pipeline: Russia, Sweden, and the Hybrid Threat from the Nord Stream Project, 2005-2009

By late 2005, Sweden suddenly faced what it perceived as a hard security threat, in the unexpected form of a Russian pipeline project across the Baltic Sea which, it was suspected, could be used as a sensor platform for Russian military intelligence. The pipeline would be ideally located for use as a tripwire sensor chain […]

The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and its Impact on Tajikistan

During the 1992-1997 civil war in Tajikistan, foreign volunteers from primarily Uzbekistan played a prominent role in the fighting on the side of the UTO. Subsequently forming the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), these volunteer jihadists continued fighting and formed a destabilizing factor in Tajikistan’s relationship with neighbouring countries. The IMU in time migrated into […]

Ausgehöhlte Seelen – eine Leere, die es zu füllen gilt: Wie wird man als US-Amerikaner oder Europäer ein Dschihadist?

Der Dschihadist unserer Zeit lebt häufig im Westen, etwa als Immigrant der zweiten Generation oder in einer anderen, ziemlich säkularen Umgebung, wie z.B. das post-sowjetische Zentralasien. Er verfügt wahrscheinlich nur wenig oder gar nicht über die arabische Sprache und ist kein islamischer Student. Religion und Ideologie werden in erster Linie als nachträgliche Rechtfertigung und Legitimation […]

UZBEK ISLAMIC EXTREMISTS IN THE CIVIL WARS OF TAJIKISTAN, AFGHANISTAN, AND PAKISTAN: FROM RADICAL ISLAMIC AWAKENING IN THE FERGHANA VALLEY TO TERRORISM WITH ISLAMIC VOCABULARY IN WAZIRISTAN

Michael Fredholm (Stockholm University) analyzes the activities of Uzbek Islamic extremists and finds that, although their Islamic rhetoric has little theological content and is outweighed by their belief in the righteousness of their cause and that salvation can be assured by armed violence in the name of the religious duty of holy war (jihad), they […]

STRATEGIES OF ENERGY AND SECURITY IN CONTEMPORARY EURASIA

Few topics are more susceptible to heated public debate than the risks associated with the energy sector and energy security. Public debate on energy issues is often made yet more convoluted by the fact that political scientists from government and think-tanks not only have a different outlook and employ different analytical methods than industry analysts, […]

STRATEGIES OF ENERGY AND SECURITY IN CONTEMPORARY EURASIA: VULNERABILITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN RUSSIA’S ENERGY RELATIONSHIP WITH EUROPE, CENTRAL ASIA, AND CHINA

Few topics are more susceptible to heated public debate than the risks associated with the energy sector and energy security. Public debate on energy issues is often made yet more convoluted by the fact that political scientists from government and think-tanks not only have a different outlook and employ different analytical methods than industry analysts, […]

SPECIAL REPORT, CENTRAL ASIAN SECURITY CHALLENGES: 2012 AND BEYOND

Afghanistan plays a pivotal role in Central Asia’s regional instability due to its weak central government, poor economy, and ethnically diverse population. Although Afghanistan contains important natural resources, the country still faces a number of problems, each of which has the potential to destroy the Afghan government after the pull-out of international military forces. Central […]

THE JAPANESE-SIAMESE ARMY OF YAMADA NAGAMASA

In seventeenth-century Siam (now Thailand), although most wars were fought against neighbouring Burma, one of the most prominent sources of military inspiration was Japan. In fact, japanese influence remained for centuries in the Siamese army. Even a perfunctory walk through the weapons gallery in the excellent Bangkok National Museum reveals that, among swords, the majority resemble […]

LANDSKNECHTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY – IN SWEDEN AND FINLAND

As a follow-up to Neil Rennoldson’s articles in Arquebusier XXXII/III on early sixteenth-century landsknechts in their German core territories, the following four illustrations depict landsknechts from the same period but in service in Sweden and Finland. Landsknechts first arrived in Sweden as mercenary contingents in Danish invasion armies, but within a few years, they were […]

ПУСТЫЕ ДУШИ – ЗИЯНИЕ, КОТОРОЕ ДОЛЖНО БЫТЬ ЗАПОЛНЕНО

Современный джихадист часто живет на Западе, возможно вторым поколением эмигрантов или как обращенный, или в другой светской общине где-нибудь в постсоветской Средней Азии. Чаще всего он не знаком с арабским и не является мусульманином. Для него религия и идеология – скорее оправдание задним числом легитимности агрессивных действий и эффект джихадизма, а не его причина. Для […]

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Eurasian Geopolitics

First study to properly treat a key regional grouping in Asia. Explores both security and energy issues across the region. Considers geopolitical obstacles to the SCO’s long-term viability. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has developed into a key regional security group in Asia, its member states representing no less than “half of humanity”. Alarmists believe […]

Kazakhstan’s Energy Sector and the Political Legacy of Nursultan Nazarbayev

The two-decade-long reign of President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan has witnessed remarkable achievements. Where there at first was no real country, only a vast expanse inhabited by a majority of Slavic settlers, a minority of native Kazakhs (no more than 20% according to the 1959 census) and a large population of disparate nationalities exiled there […]

GLOBALIZATION AND EURASIA’S ENERGY SECTOR

Globalization has brought new vulnerabilities and opportunities in Eurasia’s energy sector. The effects of globalization particularly concern Russia’s energy relationships with Europe, Central Asia, and China. In the transition from the command economy of the Soviet period to the market economy of the present, the Russian energy industry gradually changed its strategy. Central Asia is […]

EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY NAVAL CHEMICAL WARFARE IN SCANDINAVIA: A STUDY IN THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW WEAPON TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY MODERN NAVIES

In these days of recurring cutbacks in government military spending, outsourcing, and the privatization of warfare with private-sector military firms involved in naval affairs, it may be worthwhile to remember that it was not always a foregone conclusion that, from an organizational point of view, a modern navy would have to be responsible for its […]

HIDDEN PLANS OF EMPEROR NAPOLEON III IN THE SECRET ARCHIVES OF THE VATICAN

The Archivio Segreto Vaticano, the Secret Archives, or to use its full and official name, Archivum secretum apostolicum Vaticanum, has handled official Church business for centuries. The modern Archives were established around 1610 but its collections include a very large number of documents that go back much further in time. Exactly how far is unknown; […]

KASHMIR, AFGHANISTAN, INDIA AND BEYOND: A TAXONOMY OF ISLAMIC EXTREMISM AND TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN

Pakistan has been called the epicentre of terrorism. Since leaders from almost every Sunni Islamic extremist group worldwide, from the internationalist Al-Qaeda to the Afghanistan-centred Taliban, have been found on the Pakistani soil, there seems little reason to argue with the conclusion that Pakistan is indeed central to political violence and terrorism in the name of Sunni Islam. […]

USER REQUIREMENTS FOR LOCALIZATION AND TRACKING TECHNOLOGY: A SURVEY OF MISSION-SPECIFIC NEEDS AND CONSTRAINTS

Current advances in localization and tracking technology have the potential to develop into much-needed tools for the saving of lives in emergency response and rescue missions, and for the safe-keeping of lives in military operations. However, civilian and military users face different environments and consequently have different user requirements. Even within the two broad fields […]

INTELLIGENCE IN COIN OPERATIONS: EXTENDING TARGETING INTO MONITORING IN AFGHANISTAN

The war effort in Afghanistan has focused on kinetic targeting. Since insurgent operations involve few fighters, the intelligence task became to identify and locate perpetrators. Modern network analysis was applied in support of targeting, but intelligence collection and analysis in support of day-to-day relations with Afghan communities have been insufficient to allow intelligence-driven operations to […]

THE LEGACY OF NURSULTAN NAZARBAYEV: WILL THE 2010 OSCE CHAIRMANSHIP MAKE KAZAKHSTANI PRESIDENT NAZARBAYEV GO DOWN IN HISTORY AS REFORMER OR DESPOT?

The twenty-year reign of President Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan has seen his country develop through independence and transition into a haven of social and political stability. At the same time, Nazarbayev has presided over constitutional and political changes that have emasculated most of the political opposition and brought in restrictive media legislation. With Kazakhstan currently holding […]

FROM THE FERGHANA VALLEY TO WAZIRISTAN AND BEYOND: THE ROLE OF UZBEK ISLAMIC EXTREMISTS IN THE CIVIL WARS OF TAJIKISTAN, AFGHANISTAN, AND PAKISTAN

Uzbek proponents of Islamic extremism have played an important role as foreign participants in the civil wars of Tajikistan and Afghanistan and the present conflict between Pakistani Taliban and security forces in the tribal areas of Pakistan. Their close links to international jihadist networks such as the Al-Qaida and, at times, considerable income from sources […]

ON THE TRAIL OF ROCKETRY: THE ENIGMA OF SCANDINAVIAN NAVAL PYROTECHNICS IN THE SIXTEENTH TO EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

Something odd seems to have happened when the modern Danish and Swedish navies emerged in the sixteenth century. Not only did they grow in size and strength very rapidly, they also experimented with unexpected types of armaments such as pyrotechnics. Most curious might have been the experiments with naval rockets…   Get Full text in […]

NATURAL-GAS TRADE BETWEEN RUSSIA, TURKMENISTAN, AND UKRAINE: AGREEMENTS AND DISPUTES

1. Since independence, Ukraine’s dependence on cheap natural gas, either from Russia or at least transited through Russia, in combination with Russia’s need to export natural gas to western Europe, has consistently caused disturbances in the relations between the two countries. 2. Russia depends on Ukraine, for the transiting of natural gas primarily aimed for […]

THE WORLD OF CENTRAL ASIAN OIL AND GAS: POWER POLITICS, MARKET FORCES, AND STEALTH PIPELINES

1. Central Asia is beginning to see a genuine move away from barter deals towards commercial deals in accordance with market forces. 2. Contrary to much perceived wisdom, in Central Asia it is Gazprom, Russia’s natural gas export monopoly, that is leading the way in the movement towards market forces. 3. Central Asian natural gas […]

ISLAM AND MODERNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CENTRAL ASIA – RELIGIOUS FAITH VERSUS WAY OF LIFE: A STORY OF FOUR RADICAL DISRUPTIONS

What Makes Central Asian Islam Central Asian? In March 2005, an Afghan deputy minister of the interior (who out of mercy will remain unnamed) was touring Europe. At one stop, he suddenly found himself faced with a question that obviously took him by surprise. How long, an innocent but assuredly well-meaning European asked, had Afghanistan […]

THE SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION: THE LATEST CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF THE GREAT GAME OR THE GUARANTOR OF CENTRAL ASIAN SECURITY?

Russia remains the key guarantor of security in Central Asia, but the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), of which Russia and China are the leading members, may have the potential eventually to assume this role. However, a number of serious  issues will hamper continued cooperation. First, there is a lack of common values among the SCO member states. In […]

GAZPROM IN CRISIS: PUTIN’S QUEST FOR STATE PLANNING AND RUSSIA’S GROWING NATURAL GAS DEFICIT

Putin and Energy Policy Russia’s president, Vladimir Putin, has never made a secret of his views on energy security, and the policy documents issued by the Kremlin for obvious reasons correspond to his views. Most important among these documents is the Russian energy strategy, approved on 23 May 2003 and confirmed by the Russian government […]

ISLAMIC EXTREMISM AS A POLITICAL FORCE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CENTRAL ASIAN ISLAMIC EXTREMIST MOVEMENTS

Islam in Central Asia does not constitute a uniform religious, social, or political force. While all titular Central Asian ethnic groups, i.e., the nations that states were named after, eventually embraced Islam, the religion did not penetrate the traditional cultures and social systems of these groups to an equal extent. While the sedentary groups generally […]

REVOLT AND REPRESSION IN UZBEKISTAN: THE DILEMMA OF WESTERN RESPONSE

The forceful suppression of revolt in Andijan shocked but also alarmed most international observers and seasoned politicians: the loss of hundreds of innocent lives was appalling but the involvement of Islamist networks was worrisome indeed. Moscow, in contrast, expressed unambiguous support to the ‘friendly Uzbek government’ and added more criticism to Western NGOs that were […]

GUNPOWDER AND THE END OF NOMAD MILITARY POWER: THE MILITARY REVOLUTION THAT REALLY MATTERED

Most academics working on the military revolution have focused their attention on Western Europe. This Eurocentric view is perhaps understandable, since many indeed seem to be more interested in the Rise of the West than in purely military affairs elsewhere. However, while the European strategists of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, being chiefly concerned with […]

NOMAD EMPIRES & NOMAD GRAND STRATEGY: THE RISE AND FALL OF NOMAD MILITARY POWER, c. 1000 BC – AD 1500

Most history was always written from the perspective of great empires such as Rome, Persia, and China. For them, and their historians, the nomads of the Eurasian steppes were little more than savage troublemakers. Nomads of different tribes and lineages were also hard to distinguish from one another. Few imperial commentators went farther than merely […]

THE PROSPECTS FOR INTERNAL UNREST IN TURKMENISTAN

Stalin’s Disneyland? The widely publicised attempt on Turkmenistani President Saparmurat Niyazov’s life on 25 November 2002, and the subsequent arrest in the capital Ashgabat of an exiled, leading opponent to the Niyazov regime, dispelled the notion that any rumours of attempted palace coups against the Turkmenistani government were exaggerated. Although the facts of the affair […]

ISLAMIC EXTREMISM AS A POLITICAL FORCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

Islam in Central Asia does not constitute a uniform religious, social, or political force. While all titular Central Asian ethnic groups, i.e., the nations that states were named after, eventually embraced Islam, the religion did not penetrate the traditional cultures and social systems of these groups to an equally encompassing extent. While sedentary groups generally […]

THE GOTHIC ART OF WAR

This is the first in a series of articles on the Goths. Later articles will describe the military organisation and battle tactics of the Romano-Gothic successor states, their weapons and armour, as well as the history of their wars from the emergence of the Goths as a people to the fall of the Gothic kingdoms […]

OSTINDISKT FAKTORI I NAGASAKI BYGGS UPP PÅ NYTT

På en konstgjord ö, Dejima, i nuvarande Nagasakis hamn, byggdes redan på 1500-talet bostäder för utländska köpman. Så småningom uppfördes här ett holländskt, ostindiskt faktori. Ön blev med århundradena fast land och bebyggt med allt fler och all högre kontorshus. Men nu ska Dejima med sitt gamla faktori återuppstå till fyrahundraårsjubileet av det första holländska […]

LEKSAKER, VAR DE FÖRST KULTFÖREMÅL – OCH ÄR TRÄHÄSTARNAS URSPRUNG OSTASIEN?

Är leksaker föremål, som har tillverkats endast för barnens lekar? Eller är leksaker vardagsföremål, som barn hittar eller lånar för att leka med? Och är alla de kottar, stenar och träpinnarsom barn använder i leken även de att betrakta som leksaker? Föreliggande artikel behandlar trähästar och andra träföremål som påträffats i Novgorod. The article describes […]

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