Kazakhstan’s Energy Sector and the Political Legacy of Nursultan Nazarbayev

The two-decade-long reign of President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan has witnessed remarkable achievements. Where there at first was no real country, only a vast expanse inhabited by a majority of Slavic settlers, a minority of native Kazakhs (no more than 20% according to the 1959 census) and a large population of disparate nationalities exiled there by Stalin (Germans, Tatars, Koreans, Chechens, and many others), Nazarbayev supervised the formation an established state, with all the attributes of statehood including a viable economy and a national identity. Where there at first existed no Kazakhstani currency and …

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